Guidance of the Ministry of Education on the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs in vocational colleges
Faculty member (2019) No. 13
Education Departments (Education Committees) of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, municipal education bureaus of each plan, and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Education Bureau:
Professional talent training programs are the normative documents for vocational colleges to implement the Party and the state's general requirements for the training of technical and skilled personnel, organize teaching activities, and arrange teaching tasks, and are the basic basis for implementing professional talent training and quality evaluation. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, vocational education and teaching reforms have continued to deepen, and the framework of national teaching standards with Chinese characteristics has been continuously improved. Vocational colleges actively connect with national teaching standards, optimize professional talent training programs, innovate talent training models, and run schools. The quality is constantly improving. However, in actual work, there are still problems such as the lack of clarity in the concept of professional talent training programs, the inadequate formulation of procedures, the timely updating of content, and the insufficient supervision mechanism. In order to implement the "National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan", promote the implementation of national teaching standards, and improve the quality of vocational education, the following opinions are proposed on the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs in vocational colleges.
I. General requirements
(A) guiding ideology
Guided by Xi Jinping's thoughts on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, in-depth implementation of the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, in accordance with the deployment of the National Education Conference, the implementation of the fundamental task of cultivating people, adherence to the market-oriented, service-oriented development and employment promotion, and improve morality The mechanism of combining education with skills, work and study, building a comprehensive personnel training system of moral, intellectual, physical, aesthetic, and labor development, highlighting the types of vocational education, deepening the integration of production and education, school-enterprise cooperation, promoting the reform of teachers, teaching materials, and teaching methods, and standardizing talents Cultivate the whole process and speed up the cultivation of compound technical and technical personnel.
(Two) basic principles
—— Adhere to the principle of educating people and promote all-round development. We will comprehensively promote Xi Jinping's new era of socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics into the textbooks and into the classroom, and actively cultivate and practice the core values of socialism. It is equally important to impart basic knowledge and cultivate professional ability, strengthen students' professional quality and professional technology accumulation, and integrate professionalism, professionalism and craftsmanship into the entire process of talent training.
—— Adhere to standards and ensure scientific standards. The national teaching standards of vocational education are basically followed, the basic requirements of the party and the state in curriculum setting, teaching content, etc. are implemented, and the scientificity, adaptability, and operability of professional talent training programs are strengthened.
——Insist on following the rules and embody the training characteristics. Follow the rules of vocational education, the growth of technical and skilled personnel, and the physical and mental development of students, handle the relationship between public basic courses and professional courses, theoretical teaching and practical teaching, academic credentials and various vocational training certificates, and design teaching activities as a whole.
—— Adhere to improving mechanisms and promote continuous improvement. Keep abreast of industry development trends and industry talent needs, establish and improve dynamic adjustment mechanisms for professional talent training programs involving multiple parties, including industry companies and third-party evaluation agencies, strengthen the effectiveness evaluation and incentives for teachers' participation in teaching and curriculum reform, and do a good job of evaluating the quality of talent cultivation With feedback.
Second, the main content and requirements
The professional talent training plan should reflect the various elements stipulated in the professional teaching standards and the main link requirements for talent training, including professional names and codes, admission requirements, years of study, career orientation, training goals and training specifications, curriculum settings, academic hour arrangements, teaching process General arrangements, implementation guarantees, graduation requirements, etc., together with a schedule of teaching progress. Schools can formulate professional talent training programs based on regional economic and social development needs, school running characteristics, and professional actualities, but they must meet the following basic requirements.
(I) Clear training objectives. According to the relevant national regulations, public basic curriculum standards and professional teaching standards, combined with the school's school level and school positioning, scientifically and reasonably determine the professional training goals, clarify the students' knowledge, ability and quality requirements, and ensure training specifications. We must pay attention to the combination of learning and using, and the combination of knowledge and action, and strive to cultivate students' innovative spirit and practical ability, and enhance their vocational adaptability and sustainable development.
Persist in taking Lideshu people as a fundamental task, continuously strengthen ideological and political work in schools, continue to deepen the comprehensive reform of "three complete education", and integrate Lideshu people into ideological and moral education, cultural knowledge education, technical skills training, and social practice education. In the link, the ideological and political work system should be promoted through the teaching system, teaching material system, and management system to effectively improve the quality of ideological and political work.
(2) Standardize the curriculum. The curriculum is divided into two categories: public basic courses and professional (skills) courses.
1. Open full public basic courses in strict accordance with relevant state regulations. Secondary vocational schools should include ideology and politics, Chinese, history, mathematics, foreign languages (English, etc.), information technology, sports and health, art, etc. as public basic compulsory courses, and include physics, chemistry, excellent Chinese traditional culture, professional literacy, etc. Courses are listed as required or limited electives. Higher vocational schools should include ideological and political theory courses, physical education, military courses, psychological health education and other courses as compulsory basic public courses, and include Marxist theoretical courses, party history, national history, Chinese traditional culture, career development and employment guidance, Innovation and entrepreneurship education, information technology, Chinese, mathematics, foreign languages, health education, aesthetic education, professional literacy, etc. are listed as compulsory or limited electives.
Comprehensively promoted Xi Jinping's new era of socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics, secondary vocational schools uniformly implemented the standard of ideological and political courses in secondary vocational schools, and higher vocational schools unifiedly used Marxist theoretical research and construction engineering ideological and political teaching and professional course teaching materials. Combining internship training to strengthen labor education, define labor education time, promote labor spirit, model spirit, education and guide students to respect labor and respect labor. Promote the integration of outstanding Chinese traditional culture into education and teaching, and strengthen the education of revolutionary culture and advanced socialist culture. Deepen the reform of physical education and aesthetic education, promote students' physical and mental health, and improve their aesthetic and humanistic qualities.
Elective courses, expansion courses or special lectures (activities) on national security education, energy conservation and emission reduction, green environmental protection, financial knowledge, social responsibility, population resources, marine science, management and other humanities and scientific literacy in accordance with the provisions of relevant documents, And integrate relevant knowledge into professional teaching and social practice. Schools should also organize labor practices, innovation and entrepreneurship practices, volunteer services, and other social welfare activities.
2. Set up professional (skill) courses in science. The professional (skill) curriculum should be adapted to the training objectives, and the content of the curriculum should be closely related to the actual production and social practices, highlighting the applicability and practicality, and focusing on the cultivation of students' professional ability and professional spirit. Generally according to the competence requirements of the corresponding professional positions (groups), 6-8 professional core courses and several professional courses are determined.
(3) Reasonably arrange class hours. 40-week teaching activities are arranged every three years in secondary and higher vocational schools. The three-year vocational school hours are not less than 3,000, and the public basic course hours are generally 1/3 of the total; the three-year vocational school hours are not less than 2500, and students are encouraged to study independently. Less than 1/4 of the total class hours. The proportion of the teaching hours of elective courses in secondary and higher vocational education to the total class hours should not be less than 10%. Generally, 16-18 hours are counted as 1 credit. Encourage the conversion of relevant vocational skill level certificates or technical skills that students have obtained from industry companies that are highly recognized by the industry into corresponding credits for diploma education according to certain rules.
(4) Strengthen the practice link. Strengthen practical teaching, which in principle accounts for more than 50% of the total teaching hours. It is necessary to actively implement a variety of internship methods such as cognitive internship, follow-up internship, and internship internship, and strengthen the evaluation and evaluation of internship training with the goal of educating people. The post placement time for students is generally 6 months, which can be arranged in stages or concentrated according to the actual situation of the major. Promote vocational colleges to build and make good use of various training bases, and strengthen student internship training. Make overall plans to promote cultural education, practical education, and active education, and carry out various social practice activities.
(5) Strict graduation requirements. According to the relevant national regulations, professional training goals and training specifications, combined with the school's actual situation, further refine and clarify the students' graduation requirements. Gradually export graduation, ensure that students complete the required credit hours and teaching links when they graduate, and organize graduation examinations (assessments) in accordance with the actual conditions of the major to ensure the completion of graduation requirements and resolutely put an end to "clear examinations".
(6) Promote the integration of documentary evidence. Encourage schools to actively participate in the pilot implementation of the 1 + X certificate system, organically integrate the relevant content and requirements of vocational skill level standards into the teaching of professional courses, and optimize professional talent training programs. Simultaneously participate in the vocational education national “credit bank” pilot, explore the establishment of relevant working mechanisms, register and store the learning results reflected in academic credentials and vocational skill level certificates, and count them into personal learning accounts to try to identify, accumulate and convert learning results .
(7) Strengthen classification guidance. Encourage schools to formulate professional talent training programs that reflect the characteristics of different schools and different professional categories in accordance with actual conditions. Separately organize classes for retired soldiers, laid-off workers, migrant workers, and new-type professional peasants. On the premise that the standards are not lowered, a professional talent training program is separately prepared, and flexible learning times and multiple teaching modes are implemented. We will carry out the specialty of thorough training in middle and high vocational education, and formulate corresponding personnel training programs flexibly in accordance with the actual situation.
3. Formulate procedures
(1) Planning and design. In accordance with the requirements of this Opinion, schools shall make overall plans and formulate specific work plans formulated and revised by professional talent training programs. Establish a professional construction committee composed of industry enterprise experts, teaching and research personnel, front-line teachers and students (graduates) representatives to jointly complete the professional talent training program system (revision) work.
(2) Investigation and analysis. All professional construction committees must do a good job of industry enterprise surveys, graduate follow-up surveys, and school student academic surveys, analyze industry development trends and industry enterprise talent needs, and identify the knowledge, abilities, and qualities required for the professional occupations (groups) for which they are specialized. , Forming a research report on professional talent training.
(3) Drafting and review. According to the actual implementation of professional teaching standards, accurately locate the training goals and specifications of professional talents, reasonably construct the curriculum system, arrange the teaching process, and clarify the requirements of teaching content, teaching methods, teaching resources, and teaching conditions. The school organizes a demonstration meeting attended by industry companies, teaching and research institutions, front-line teachers inside and outside the school, and student representatives. After demonstrating the training plan for professional talents, it is submitted to the school-level party organization meeting for review.
(4) Release and update. The approved professional talent training plan is approved by the school. The school issues and implements it according to the procedures, reports it to the higher education administrative department for record, and actively discloses it to the public through the school website and accepts the supervision of the whole society. Schools should establish and improve mechanisms for the evaluation, feedback, and improvement of the implementation of professional talent training programs, and optimize and adjust them in a timely manner in accordance with economic and social development needs, technological development trends, and the actual situation of education and teaching reform.
(1) Strengthen Party leadership in an all-round way. Strengthening the party's leadership is the fundamental guarantee for the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs in vocational colleges. Under the leadership of local party committees, vocational colleges adhere to the guidance of Xi Jinping's new era of socialist characteristics with Chinese characteristics, and effectively strengthen the leadership of the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs. Vocational school school party organization meetings and principal office meetings should be regularly studied, and secretaries, principals, and responsible persons should regularly study the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs. The person in charge of the party organization of a vocational school and the principal are the first persons responsible for the formulation and implementation of the professional talent training plan, and they must focus their efforts on education and teaching.
(2) Strengthen curriculum ideology and politics. Actively build a "Ideological and Political Course + Course Ideological and Political Course" pattern, promote the entire process of "three comprehensive education", and realize the organic unity of ideological and political education and technical skills training. Combining the characteristics of students in vocational colleges, we will innovate the teaching mode of ideological and political courses. Strengthen the professional awareness of teachers of professional courses, combine the characteristics of different professional talents training and the requirements of professional ability and quality, sort out the ideological and political education elements contained in each course, give full play to the ideological and political education function carried by professional courses, and promote the teaching of professional courses and ideological and political theory Class teaching is closely integrated and goes in the same direction.
(3) Organize and develop professional curriculum standards and lesson plans. According to the overall requirements of the professional talent training plan, formulate (repair) professional curriculum standards, clarify curriculum goals, optimize curriculum content, standardize the teaching process, and timely incorporate new technologies, new processes, and new standards into curriculum standards and teaching content. Teachers should be instructed to accurately grasp the teaching requirements of the curriculum, standardize the writing and strictly implement the teaching plan, do a good job in the overall design of the curriculum, select teaching materials in accordance with the procedures, rationally use various teaching resources, and do a good job in teaching organization.
(4) Deepen the reform of teachers, teaching materials and teaching methods. Establish a teaching innovation team that meets the needs of project-based and modular teaching, and continuously optimize the structure of teachers' capabilities. We will improve the system for selecting textbooks, select high-quality textbooks that reflect new technologies, new processes, and new specifications, and introduce typical production cases. Summarize and promote the modern apprenticeship pilot experience, popularize teaching methods such as project teaching, case teaching, situational teaching, and modular teaching, widely use heuristic, inquiry, discussion, and participatory teaching methods, and promote flipped classroom, mixed teaching, New teaching modes, such as integrated teaching, promote classroom teaching revolution. Strengthen classroom teaching management, standardize teaching order, and create high-quality classrooms.
(5) Promote the organic integration of information technology and teaching. Adapt to the new requirements of "Internet + Vocational Education", comprehensively improve teachers' ability to apply information technology, promote the widespread application of modern information technologies such as big data, artificial intelligence and virtual reality in education and teaching, and actively promote the change of teacher roles and educational concepts Reforms in concepts, teaching content, teaching methods, and teaching evaluation. Accelerate the construction of an intelligent teaching support environment, build curriculum resources that can meet diverse needs, innovate service supply models, and serve students for lifelong learning.
(6) Improve the management and evaluation of the learning process. Strictly implement the training objectives and training specifications, and increase the proportion of process assessment and practical skills assessment scores in the overall course score. Strict examination discipline, improve the multiple assessment and evaluation system, improve the monitoring, evaluation and feedback mechanism of student learning process, guide students to self-management, active learning, and improve learning efficiency. Strengthen the whole process management and assessment of practical teaching links such as internship, practical training, graduation design (thesis).
V. Supervision and guidance
The education administration department of the State Council is responsible for regularly revising and publishing professional directories for secondary and higher vocational education, formulating and issuing national teaching standards for vocational education, and providing macro guidance to the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs. Provincial education administrative departments shall further provide guidance or specific requirements in accordance with the actual conditions in the region to promote the implementation of national teaching standards; they shall establish a spot check system to conduct regular inspections and evaluations of the formulation, disclosure and implementation of professional talent training programs in vocational colleges in the region, Announce inspection results. The municipal education administrative department is responsible for guiding, inspecting, and supervising the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs in secondary vocational schools in the region, and for the record and summary. Give full play to the research and consulting role of local vocational education teaching and research institutions, organize relevant exchanges and seminars, and guide and participate in the formulation of professional talent training programs in local vocational colleges. Encourage industry-education integration enterprises, industry-education integration training bases, etc. to participate in the formulation and implementation of professional talent training programs, give play to the role of industries, enterprises, parents, etc., and form a diverse monitoring mechanism.
"Principles of the Ministry of Education on Formulating Teaching Plans for Secondary Vocational Schools" (Teaching Staff  No. 2), "Principles of Opinions on Formulating Teaching Plans for Higher Vocational Education Specialties" (Teaching High  No. 2) since The implementation of this Opinion shall cease.
Ministry of Education
June 5, 2019