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Exploration of School-enterprise Cooperation Talent Training Model

浏览次数: Updated: 2019-03-28 08:08 Views:
,产业经济学博士、教授、博士生导师,美国洛克韦理大学 Yang Ke , PhD, Professor, PhD Supervisor, Industrial Economics, Rockwell University
Visiting Scholar, Visiting Scholar, Berlin University of Mechanical Engineering, Germany
Education expert, member of National Vocational Education Teaching Reform and Innovation Steering Committee, National Founding
Expert of Learning City Academic Committee, China Vocational Education School-Enterprise Cooperation Working Committee
Executive Director, Executive Director of China Vocational Education Academic Working Committee, China Vocational Education
Vice-Chairman of the Educational Teaching Materials Working Committee and Deputy Director of the China Vocational Education Teaching Process Steering Committee
President, currently working in the Vocational Education and Adult Education Department of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Yingda Information Industry
Honorary Dean of Industry Research Institute.

School-enterprise cooperation has become the only way for the development of vocational education. The teaching work in school-enterprise cooperation is the most important part of vocational education and technical personnel training. It mainly manifests in the close teaching cooperation between schools and enterprises, and jointly develops modern technology with good personality, strong professional ability, and can serve the production line Talent. The mode of school-enterprise cooperation in cultivating vocational education skilled personnel is mainly constructed and explored from the aspects of teaching management, teaching implementation, and teaching evaluation.

I. School-enterprise cooperative teaching management system

Different vocational education systems determine the different identities of students. In the traditional apprenticeship system vocational training, students are employees of enterprises; in the school system vocational training, students are the "clients" of the school; in the school-enterprise cooperation (modern apprenticeship) system vocational training, students are the school's "products", "Associate staff" of the enterprise. The management system of students varies according to their status. The school-enterprise cooperation management system is roughly reflected in the following aspects:

(1) School-enterprise cooperation joint enrollment system

The usual practice in the past was to "recruit students first and then recruit them later." The school recruits students according to the policy, and then the company "independently recruits workers" according to the principle of vocational and professional equivalence. The enrollment system for school-enterprise cooperation is that the school actively cultivates skilled talents in accordance with the model required by enterprises and society; students choose their own majors (enterprises); companies choose their students. Enterprises must have absolute say in the choice of majors, number of students, and specific conditions of students. The joint enrollment of the school and the enterprise fully reflects the win-win relationship between the school and the enterprise in the school-enterprise cooperation.

(2) Credit management system

The school incorporates the students' credit calculation system into the school's credit management system during the company's cognitive internship, intermediate internship, and practice classes before graduation. A total of 180 credits over three years, the ratio of theoretical credits to practical credits is 1: 1; theoretical credits are 90 credits; practical credits are calculated as 8 credits for the first semester, and 28 credits for the second and third semesters. Six semesters total 54 credits, a total of 90 credits; 24 credit hours per 1 credit. Combining the ordinary examination with the graduation examination, small papers, various survey reports, social practice and other small items can get corresponding credits.

(3) Professional counselor system

In addition to strengthening moral education guidance for students, vocational schools also need to strengthen professional counseling. Each specialty must establish a normal interactive relationship with the technical staff of the partner enterprise, and select professional counselors from the technical staff of the enterprise. Usually a professional teaching class is equipped with at least one professional counselor to participate in the student's professional growth process.

2. School-enterprise cooperative teaching implementation system

(I) Establishing human resources qualification system

School-enterprise cooperation is a complex systematic project, in which people are the most important element, an important embodiment of the results of school-enterprise cooperation, the most fundamental content of school-enterprise cooperation, and the specific implementer of the school-enterprise cooperation process. School-enterprise cooperative teaching implementers are mainly school theory teachers, business trainers, and students. The level of individual literacy and ability is directly related to the continuous and development of school-enterprise cooperation. Therefore, the following manpower qualification system must be established.

1. Teacher training induction system

Vocational education teachers include theoretical teachers and practical trainers. Theoretical teachers must have the required academic qualifications and vocational skills requirements. The intern trainers must have experience in working in production positions in the enterprise, as well as vocational skills and vocational teaching methods, vocational education, professional psychology, sociology, labor law, etc For comprehensive training, you must obtain a trainer qualification certification. Theoretical teachers focus on receiving vocational skills and vocational teaching methods, so that they have a full understanding of the entire vocational activity process. In this way, the school and the enterprise jointly ensure that the teaching can meet the predetermined quality standards in terms of teachers.

2. Student admission test placement system

Students who participate in the joint enrollment of school-enterprise cooperation will be comprehensively tested by the school and the enterprise after enrollment. The test consists of a written test and an interview. The test content mainly includes cultural basic knowledge and basic ability qualities, so as to determine the majors studied. Finally, the teaching will be divided into classes based on the test results.

(B) the system of alternate operation of engineering

School-enterprise cooperation takes vocational schools and enterprises as the main body, and emphasizes the combination and integration of "schools" and "enterprises". The work-study alternation is based on students, emphasizing the intersection and spiral of "learning" and "work". The school-enterprise cooperation must implement the alternating training mode of engineering and learning, so we must focus on building the following systems.

System 1: Teaching plan integration

The teaching plan should be formulated, implemented and managed by the school and the company based on the analysis of relevant occupations. The school should carry out cultural knowledge transfer, the necessary teaching of cultural knowledge theory should be combined with production practice, and the students must obtain the necessary culture. Theoretical knowledge; and production practice is also an important part of the entire teaching plan, occupying a reasonable proportion, and also an important part of student performance assessment. Students as "prospective employees" should actively participate in corresponding social work activities.

System two: work-alternation

That is, students receive training and learning in the school within the prescribed time every semester or week according to the teaching plan, and the rest of the time they enter the company's "training center" or production positions for training and alternate rotation. The ratio of theoretical credit to practical credit is 1: 1. According to different majors, the length of time students spend in theoretical learning at school or in corporate positions depends on actual needs. The principle must be a close combination of theory and practice. Theoretical learning serves skill training. In this way, it is possible for the students from theoretical to practical ability to reach or exceed the expected training goals, to achieve the overall quality of students to meet the requirements of enterprises for talents.

System three: curriculum module

In the teaching and learning activities and processes that are effectively organized to achieve certain educational goals, the curriculum setting is at the core, and it is an important factor and bottleneck in achieving school-enterprise cooperation at the teaching level. Curriculum modularization refers to the specialization, stylization, and standardization in four aspects: teaching content, teaching equipment, teaching faculty, and teaching evaluation. The implementation of the module of the curriculum may fully reflect the teaching policy of "teaching students according to their aptitude" and "appropriate measures according to local conditions", and truly implement supporting teaching equipment, students with supporting teaching materials, and teachers with supporting methods to effectively implement the alternate training mode of engineering.

(Three) the work system of the "dual teacher team"

Theoretical teachers and practical trainers are two indispensable subjects in the school-enterprise cooperative teaching structure. But only by accurately positioning the roles and functions of the two in teaching, and artistically blending them in operation, can teaching be full of vitality and vitality. There is a great degree of correlation between theoretical teachers and trainers, between theoretical teachers, and trainers. Only through mutual communication and close cooperation between teachers can we truly form a synergy, and can it fully affect the student training process and all links in depth and breadth, and exert the work efficiency of the "dual teacher team". To this end, three systems must be implemented.

First, the project manager is responsible for the system

School-enterprise cooperation must be based on a specialty. Without a major, it is impossible to truly achieve school-enterprise cooperation. In accordance with the principle of equivalence between professional and corporate nature, a project manager is appointed for each school-enterprise cooperation project. Responsible for the daily affairs of school-enterprise cooperation internally and externally.

Second, the teacher curriculum contracting system

According to the similarity and compatibility of teaching modules, the professional courses are divided into major one and major two, which are contracted by two teachers respectively. This avoids the division of professional teaching tasks, which leads to unclear teacher responsibilities and duplicate teaching content. Inadequate or missing, it is conducive to the development of modular teaching. The skill operation module is also responsible for implementing block contracting according to the skills of each trainer.

Third, the communication system

Establish regular communication time and establish a regular communication mechanism. Professional teachers use a certain time every day to conduct discussions. Theoretical teachers communicate with trainers no less than 3 times a week. Regularly hold various exchange activities, such as salon activities, various press conferences, etc. Newspapers, magazines, topics, forums, etc., and through organized and planned exhibitions, the education and teaching experience and innovative ideas of the majority of teachers are comprehensively exchanged, and they can learn from each other and improve together.

Teaching Evaluation System for School-Enterprise Cooperation

Teaching evaluation is the soul of the entire teaching work. Scientific and accurate teaching evaluation is conducive to further promoting the implementation of teaching, strengthening the management of teaching, and then conducive to the healthy development of school-enterprise cooperative teaching evaluation.

The school-enterprise cooperative teaching evaluation system should not only focus on cultivating students 'professional abilities, but also focus on cultivating students' key abilities. Assessment and evaluation of theoretical teaching, focusing on training students' good study habits. Including six aspects of preparation before class, 10% of class, 15% of homework, 50% of test results, 8% of social behavior, and 7% of learning content records. Assessment and evaluation of practical teaching, focusing on the overall improvement of student skills and quality. Including eight aspects of work quality, work speed, professional knowledge, training attitude, civilized production, social behavior, production safety, and training content records. Relevant teachers or trainers are engaged in the teaching of different modules or types of work, but the ultimate professional quality of the students is reflected in the individual and group of students. Taking theoretical teachers and trainers as an evaluation object, specifically to train students to become outstanding modern professional talents. Teaching evaluation is mainly accomplished through the following channels:

(I) Learning feedback and tracking system

Students write training records every day, whether they are training in school or in the company. Theoretic teachers, trainers, class teachers, and project managers make corresponding evaluations of students through their daily training records, and get feedback information from them. They also make corresponding evaluations of teaching and timely modify teaching behaviors.

Establish a tracking and feedback system for the internship at the internship, intermediate, and graduation internship stages, as well as a tracking and feedback system for the employment of graduates after graduation. Through the student's growth history and performance, provide real and effective data for the training of vocational education personnel. The best effect of school-enterprise cooperative teaching evaluation.

(B) the graduation system for examinations

Each school-enterprise cooperation project must set up a special "training committee" and set up a special "examination committee". The "Examination Board" is composed of representatives from guilds, vocational education groups, education bureaus, and other schools. The main job is to organize graduation examinations after student training. Those who pass the examination obtain relevant vocational qualifications and school graduation certificates.

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